十地 – daśa-bhūmi

十地是大乘菩萨道的修行阶位,代表了菩萨在修行中断除烦恼的程度,也标志着菩萨成就功德的程度。大地能生长万物,故佛典中常以‘地’来形容能生长功德的菩萨行。十地菩萨分别是:

初地 – 欢喜地(Pramuditā-bhūmi)

诸菩萨住此地中,先已于心增上法行,善修治故;超过一切声闻独觉现观,得诸菩萨现观。由正证得无上现观故;诸大菩萨,于此地中,住增上喜。是故此地,名为极喜。

处在欢喜地的菩萨,是刚刚开悟了的行者。他对世间的一切生灭法,有了自己正确的体验。除去了一般凡夫的妄执,真正明白了一切法本空、无我、与万法唯心的真实意义。并且亲历了出世间的妙境,进入了一个与世间凡夫有别的,崭新的精神领域。而内心喜不自胜,所以称为欢喜地。

The first of the ten Bodhisattva Levels (bhūmi) whose name means ‘the Joyful One’, according to the Daśabhūmika Sūtra. At this level, the Bodhisattva joyfully engages in the Perfection of Generosity (dāna-pāramitā) and also gathers other beings to the Dharma through the four ‘means of attraction’ (saṃgraha-vastu).

二地 – 离垢地(Vimalā-bhūmi)

谓诸菩萨,住此地中,先善修治初地行故;超过一切声闻独觉地,证得极净妙尸罗蕴,对治一切微犯戒垢。是故此地,名为离垢。

处在这一地阶位的菩萨,了知你我同体的意义,思想言行因而得到了净化。从前的染污行为不再生起,一切身口意的活动,已经不再有过失污垢。自然地依圣道而行事,成为了天人的楷模。

The second of the ten Bodhisattva Levels (bhūmi). According to the Daśabhūmika Sūtra it is known as ‘the Stainless One’ because at this level the Bodhisattva engages in the Perfection of Morality (śīla-pāramitā).

三地 – 发光地(Prabhākarī-bhūmi)

谓诸菩萨住此地中,先善修治第二地故;超过一切声闻独觉地。证得极净三摩地蕴;大智光明之所依止。是故此地,名为发光。

处在这一地阶位的菩萨,通过实相的体证,看破了一切的虚妄,内心能忍一切凡夫所不能忍的一切事情,而且内心始终保持着湛然不动不受干扰,反而伺机度化一切愿得解脱法的众生。   

他的智慧,对一切众生的种种愚痴与过错,都能了解。并且能够无尽的宽容、容忍与怜悯。他的智慧,如同照亮愿得解脱法的众生的一盏明灯,光芒四射。照现众生的痴迷颠倒,以智慧的光芒驱散黑暗与无明。

The third of the ten Bodhisattva Levels (bhūmi), whose name means ‘the Illuminating One’, according to the Daśabhūmika Sūtra. At this level, the Bodhisattva accepts the non-arising of phenomena and cultivates the Perfection of Patience (kṣānti-pāramitā).

四地 – 焰慧地(Arciṣmatī-bhūmi)

谓诸菩萨住此地中,先善修治第三地故;超过一切声闻独觉地,证得极净缘诸觉分能取法境微妙慧蕴,能现前烧一切烦恼。是故此地名为焰慧。

处在这一地阶位的菩萨,已经亲身证得了诸法与众生的虚妄不实。对一切都无所畏惧,能起完全的勇毅。他能为解脱众生而赴汤蹈火,粉身碎骨,而没有丝毫的退却。他越是为众生做事吃苦,他的智慧与力量就越会相应地增长。他在救世的事业中,能够锻炼出极高的智慧,他的智慧力量如同高涨巨大的火焰。

The fourth of the ten Bodhisattva Levels (bhūmi). According to the Daśabhūmika Sūtra, its name means ‘the Flaming One’, because at this level the Bodhisattva engages in the Perfection of Strenuousness (vīrya-pāramitā) with the radiant light of awareness.

五地 – 难胜地(Sudurjayā-bhūmi)

谓诸菩萨住此地中,先善修治第四地故;超过一切声闻独觉地,证得极净缘谛所知诸法微妙慧蕴,成极难成不住流转寂灭圣道。是故此地,名极难胜。

处在这一地阶位的菩萨,由于智慧得到了高涨,不再为虚妄而颠倒,修行到了极深的禅定境界。他在定中能够全凭智慧的力量,观照世间与出世间一切微妙难宣的法。他掌握了宇宙运行的原理,所以善能分别真伪,并且能以慧力引用禅定之力起极大的神通变化。他的慧力与神通,难测难量,宇宙之内能胜过他的已是寥寥无几。

The fifth of the Bodhisattva Levels (bhūmi), ‘the One Difficult to Conquer’, according to the Daśabhūmika Sūtra. The level bears this name because at this stage the Bodhisattva engages in the Perfection of Meditative Concentration (samādhi-pāramitā) which is very difficult for demons to overcome.

六地 – 现前地(Abhimukhī-bhūmi)

谓诸菩萨住此地中,先善修治第五地故;超过一切声闻独觉地,证得极净缘智非智二种所作诸行流转止息法境微妙慧蕴,多分有相任运相续妙智现前,是故此地,名为现前。

处在这一地阶位的菩萨,已经得到了完全的三昧定力与智慧,一切世间与出世间法的本相,都难逃他的法眼,都会如实的出现在他的眼前,没有蒙骗欺诈他的可能。他的慧力与定力,使他能够随心所欲地应用宇宙的法则,成就他心中所想的一切现前(不能违反宇宙法则)。

The sixth of the Bodhisattva Levels (bhūmi). According to the Daśabhūmika Sūtra it means ‘the level which is present or turned towards’, and is so-called because at this level the Bodhisattva has gained an understanding of the emptiness (śūnyatā) and sameness of all phenomena through the cultivation of the Perfection of Insight (prajñā-pāramitā), and has resolutely turned towards enlightenment (bodhi).

七地 – 远行地(Dūraṃgamā-bhūmi)

谓诸菩萨住此地中,先善修治第六地故;超过一切声闻独觉地,证得极净微妙解脱解脱智见蕴,由已远入一切现行诸相解脱;是故此地,名为远行。

处在这一地阶位的菩萨,私心泯灭,为了众生无处不到,无时不在,恒以大慈悲之心、方便智慧,点化愚痴众生,救灾解困。又以智慧与定力指导后学菩萨,使他们能够增长慧命,疾得圣果。他肩负着极重要的任务,他要教育与救度已发心和未发心修行的众生,所以他任重而道远。

The seventh of the Bodhisattva Levels (bhūmi), ‘the One which Goes Far’, according to the Daśabhūmika Sūtra. It is so-called because at this level Bodhisattvas engage in the Perfection of Skilful means (upāya-kauśalya-pāramitā) by which they cause beings to be liberated.

八地 – 不动地(Acalā-bhūmi)

不动地。谓诸菩萨住此地中,先善修治第七地故;超过一切声闻独觉地,证得极净微妙解脱解脱智见蕴,解脱一切相自在障故;得无功用任运相续道之所依止。是故此地,名为不动。

处在这一地阶位的菩萨,虽然道行深远难测,且功德宏大。却不恃己得一切智慧与神通,而生一点点的怠慢之意,对救世度生的努力,不减丝毫的松懈。对圆满度世的宏愿,能够恒久的乐此不倦,道心永不动摇,永不退转。

The eighth of the Bodhisattva Levels (bhūmi), ‘the Unshakeable One’, according to the Daśabhūmika Sūtra. Here the Bodhisattva engages in the Perfection of Aspiration (praṇidhāna) through which he aspires to attain what remains to be accomplished. This stage (or sometimes the preceding one) is characterized as ‘avaivartika’ (Skt., no turning back) since once a Bodhisattva reaches this stage he cannot backslide in his progress and his attainment of perfect enlightenment (saṃbodhi) is guaranteed.

九地 – 善慧地(Sādhumatī-bhūmi)

谓诸菩萨住此地中,先善修治第八地故;超过一切声闻独觉地,证得极净微妙解脱解脱智见蕴,解脱一切无碍辩障无过广慧之所依止,是故此地,名为善慧。

处在这一地阶位的菩萨,能够善用一切智慧与神力,起无量的神变,进入了一个至善的境界之中。能够弘法度生于十方无碍,为一切菩萨所敬重,他能教化菩萨与凡夫一体无误,堪作大菩萨之师。

The ninth of the Bodhisattva Levels (bhūmi), ‘the One with Good Discrimination’, according to the Daśabhūmika Sūtra. On this level, the Bodhisattva cultivates the Perfection of Strength (bala-pāramitā).

十地 – 法云地(Dharmameghā-bhūmi)

谓诸菩萨住此地中,先善修治第九地故;超过一切声闻独觉地,证得极净微妙解脱解脱智见蕴,解脱发起大神通智障;如云法身,圆满所依。是故此地,名为法云地。   

处在这一地阶位的菩萨,智慧、力量与解脱已达究竟,而且更加能够善于运用这些能力。因此他的济世功德便没有穷尽,能够利乐有情永无止境。   

他的智慧与法力如同浮云法雨一样,为众生遮去苦恼的逼迫,滋养众生的慧命令得增长。他已经成为一切众生的守护者,一切解脱智慧的源泉。   

法云地阶位的菩萨,是菩萨修行的最高境界,实际上法云地菩萨的境界就是我们通常意义上的佛。法云地阶位的菩萨,他的智慧、神通与解脱已达究竟。已经成为了一切解脱智慧的源泉,成为了一切想要求得解脱之法的众生的守护者,成为了六道众生的救世主,成为了一位法身遍满宇宙的觉者–佛陀。

The tenth of the Bodhisattva Levels (bhūmi), ‘the Cloud of Dharma’, according to the Daśabhūmika Sūtra. At this level, the Bodhisattva engages in the Perfection of Awareness (jñāna-pāramitā) which brings him into contact with the Dharma in the presence of all the tathāgatas of the ten directions.

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